如果探讨中国诗歌的断代史,新诗和古诗划界是绝对的分水岭,在新诗的断代上,郑敏是一块里程碑,她在青年时的创作和探索已为30年后70年代的诗人提供可资借鉴的重要作品。

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郑敏先生(2019年7月18日99周岁 张嘉弘/摄影)

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童文给郑敏的短信,1984年3月28日写于一张照片的背后。


  1


  第一次见到伯母是她1955年回国后第二次来南京,应该是1977年暑假,文化大革命的尾声,“红太阳”已经去世。大爷全家来南京,我也是第一次见到大爷、童蔚和童朗。南京奇热无比,蚊子多,大娘带着我们去南京大厂镇南化公司化工研究院看望她的姐姐王勍(姐父詹树章是研究院副院长)。暑期,我们几个孩子当然是大人们的监督对象,在葡萄藤架下的阴凉通风处,边乘凉,边做“暑假作业”。蔚姐读的是中译版《The Scarlet Letter》小说,童明太小,实际上只有我和童朗是被监督的靶子,其实我们都在应付作业,童朗读罗曼·罗兰的《约翰克里斯朵夫》,老太爷在盯着我学英文,每日必听《业余英语讲座》电台广播,他比我更准时,和我一起听,我是无法逃脱了。他的方式是死记硬背,不许走捷径!一天,大娘见我英语发音不地道,就主动约我早上7点,吃早饭前,在过道通风地方,给我补课!她的方法对我特别有效,是大娘教我完整的英语“元音,辅音”体系,非常耐心,两周后,我看到任何一个英文字,就可以读出来!!对我是一大飞跃,马上,老太爷给我加码,给了我一本他中学的英语课本(其中没有一个中文字)让我一篇一篇背诵短文给他听(记得一篇是讲牛顿,一篇讲哥伦布……)我硬着头皮念下去。老太爷确实是像“一口大钟”不敲不响,他要求你自己主动学,而不是循循善诱,但是,有问必答。不久,老太爷又拿一本大部头小说《1001夜》The Arabian Nights 让我背…… 我是没有出头的日子了。很快,中央电视台开播英语教学节目,教师是吴青(吳文藻冰心之女)老太爷比较认可,于是我就跟着电视继续学……


  至今,在纯英语环境中工作生活,我还会时不时地回想起大娘手把手教我念英文的情形……

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郑敏先生(40年代出版第一本诗集时期


  2


  1977年夏天,大爷全家在南京度假,晚上,我们小孩子们在院子里搭板床乘凉,那时满天都是星星,我们听收音机里的节目。


  大爷是行业的名人,白天晚上,不断地有人来找他请教业务,特别是教电子线路之类,大爷是来者不拒,在客厅里遂一接待;大娘则是在后院的葡萄架下,陪老太爷谈话。当然,大娘思路开阔,更是着重自己的见解和立论,我记得,她讲起自己的论文 “Julius Caesar—A Multi Facet Diamond” 老太爷不时地加以评论,在当时的背景下,如果把某人比喻成凯撒大帝,那么,另一层次的重量级人物又是如何影射到罗马帝国的人物上,这是春秋笔法,老太爷不太认可简单而直接的对号入座,大娘则是充分发挥;凯撒临死前的那句名言: “Et tu, Brute?”


  “布鲁托斯家族为捍卫罗马共和国而著称于世,布鲁托斯本人也是德高望重的元老院成员,而且他还是凯撒最亲密的战友。当那群叛党在元老院举剑刺杀凯撒时,他虽然身中几十刀,仍在顽强反抗。直到布鲁托斯也刺了他一刀,用安东尼的话来描述:“当他拔出那万恶的武器的时候,瞧凯撒的血怎样汩汩不断地跟着它出来,好像急于涌到外面来,想要知道究竟是不是布鲁托斯下这样无情的毒手……这是最无情的一击,因为当尊贵的凯撒看见他行刺的时候,负心,这一柄比叛徒的武器更锋锐的利剑,就一直刺进了他的心脏,那时候他的伟大的心就碎裂了……”凯撒绝望了,惨叫一声:“还有你,布鲁托斯?”

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 郑敏先生(上世纪60年代初期)


  大娘与老太爷讨论、辩论了几个晚上,最后大娘答应写完全文,寄给老太爷。几个月后,大娘寄来了自己打字的英文稿,老太爷读完后,让我寄给上海的林同济,全增嘏传阅,林同济写了长篇回信,老太爷又让我把回信寄给大娘,老太爷把稿子从林同济要回,给南京大学陈嘉(这些寄信跑腿都是小书童干的活儿:),陈爷爷来我们家里与老太爷讨论,最后,陈爷爷说等下一次暑假与郑敏面谈。


  若干年后,我读到安东尼在元老院认领凯撒尸体时:“I came to bury Caesar not to praise him ” 我说这句话多么有政治智慧啊,老太爷回答他那句常说的话:“政治只有利害而没有是非”。至今,我也没读过大娘的那篇论文《凯撒—一颗多截面的钻石》


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文中提及的论文收入《英美诗歌戏剧研究》。


  3


  1979年暑假,我们全家子孙儿女一起聚在南京庆祝老太爷80岁生日,他老人家很高兴,满面笑容,这是他的高产期(1977-1983共出版了11本书)。大娘读了老太爷这时期的论文:“SuzhouGardens —-which embody all the characteristics of Chinese landscape art” (东南园墅的雏形)特别是第一次看到《童寯画选》《童寯素描画选》的出版初样,非常震撼!她兴奋地对我说:小文,看看爷爷的水彩画,就知道他的西化程度!这是没法比拟的才华。大娘几乎每天晚上都陪老太爷谈话,同时,天天帮着老太爷照料已经开放的茉莉花和茶花。当时,大娘大谈特讲她的诗理论,她想从《文心雕龙》的理论着手,来剖析如何把握“文”和“质”,老太爷把自己的《文心雕龙》一书借给大娘(这本书是放在老太爷床头上的十几本经典之一,其他如《论语》《老子》等等)。


  大娘的研究方向是把中国文学的整体的“字”和“体”梳理清楚,然后才能使得诗的理论清晰化。(后来我才知道她在联大是玄学家汤用彤的学生,可见大娘的中文功底),大娘还大谈了一下,她计划研究李商隐,认为李商隐的诗非常有画面感,甚至雕塑感,惊奇不断。老太爷则独爱杜诗,并且把自己的工部线装书拿出来,给大娘点评。


  这个夏天不像是家人度假,而更像是两位伟大学者的交流,老太爷仍然是不动声色,安静的思考,任何人也改变不了他的轨迹。而大娘则是很兴奋,从敬畏老太爷,到深层次的思想交流,并且,用英文频繁通信。从此以后,我每次见到大娘,她都要说起她对老太爷的新认识和新发现。

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郑敏先生(20世纪80年代左右)


  附录:


  郑敏致童寯


  1978年10月4日


  親爱的父亲


  太高兴了,我终于有空坐在打字机前给你写信!从南京回来,我一直在想给您写信,写什么呢?我还没想好。或许写些我们在北京的日常生活,或许写些我们在南京您的”别墅“酷热酷热的夏天,无论如何,我们的两次南京之行,林夙在76及77年住在北京,毫无疑问,我们两家人更加亲密,而我渴望知道南京的情形,比如房子修的怎么样?园子花草长得怎么样?您仍然在咖啡桌旁的竹椅子每天读许多的书?小猫咪们怎么样?那壶茉莉花茶怎么样?它香醇味道给我们之间许多有趣对话时提供了欣悦的背景!还有,那盆茶花长得怎么样?它看上去长的弱小,但是有四五个有希望的花蕾,不需要怎么照料,稍施肥料到时侯就会开花(说实话,我怀疑它最终能否开花,因为我知道南京的家人不是种花的好手)说起盆花,您一定记得,我从南京带回家的两盆菊花,它们长得很好,一盆已经开花(尽管还设有开满,实际上,远没有开满)另一盆让我充满希望!


  诗白这学期不教课,下学期开始教电子学,然而他是个闲不下来的人,现在他又被任命为电子学教研组主任,这个教硏组在被拆除十年后又刚刚恢复成立。您可以想像他不会有时间阅读文献来更新电子学的知识,由于现在学校里时兴一边教学一边搞研究项目,这样他们可以双肩挑,至少跟上电子学的最新进展,这样在时间允许下,他可以搞一些科研。我们儿子现在不错,他开始用功学习,同时也学美术和音乐课。他的主要缺点是粗心大意,在最近的数学和英语竞赛中没能得满分。我们女儿开始掉体重,她非常忙,每天能睡八小时就是很幸运的了。我自己仍然教三年级课程,现在我的学生正在高中教字实习,从十月十号起,我要去教练,每天上午上课,每周五天。


  今年秋天,我们有几天非常美丽的天气,但是今天是潮湿而凄凉,虽然是早上十点,我要开着灯打字,写这封信。在我工作的房间窗外,秋天的树林美丽的颜色已经消失,剩下的只是枯萎的落叶,今年炎热的秋老虎已经过去,我想,我们没有时间去西山看早秋的红叶。如果仔细远眺的话,就从我们住的地方,也不难看到红云般的秋叶,裹绕着山顶和山腰。在十月的下旬,在晴天和可见度高的日子,我在乘公共汽车上下班途中,欣赏和赞美红叶,它们就像红围巾轻轻围住灰色的远处蓝色山峦。请原谅我这里用的过饰辞藻,我不是画家,但是,多彩的颜色永远令我神往。


  在您开始烦躁之前,我最好在此打住,如果您有精力和时间,盼望您给我们来信,让我们知道您的近况,也让我们知道您正在读的有意思的书。


  您的儿媳


  敏

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童诗白、郑敏合影于清华17公寓(1997年)


  亲爱的父亲:


  我们正在等林弼共进午餐,收到您的来信,惊喜万分!我们极端欣喜地读着您的信。在今天,像这样动人的爱情故事是无法讲述和描绘的,在西方,人们对真正的爱情已经丧失信心,我们总是忙忙碌碌而没有时间去思考什么是爱情。这是今天西方和东方的年轻人成长的模式:对爱情给予轻蔑的一笑,或者是没有时间,或者是丧失信心。但是,爱,不论是兄弟的还是婚姻的,都是天上的雨水,没有它,小溪就会停止流淌,河流就会干枯,大海就会失去澎湃,给人类留下的只是”商业的需求”。您在壮年殇偶是非常悲哀的,但是,这比没有真正爱情的婚姻要好的多,像这样记忆中的永恒的爱,是任何时间、空间和专制也无法剥夺的。


  上个月关存厚来我家吃晚饭时,林炜有点疲惫,看上去显得衰老,关存厚看到他感到吃惊(浮肿的眼睛,皱纹的前额,渐秃的头顶)部分原因是他们很久没有见面了,关存厚期待见到是更为年轻的林炜。最近,林炜正在编写教材和忙于一千零一件琐碎的事物,一方面,他过于认真,另一方面,他也是违背自己的意愿。他应该把更多的精力放在研究上,把他的最后的闪光浪费在这些事情上,是可惜了。您的忠告来的正是时候,但是,我真的怀疑事情会有改观。


  下学期,我要开门新课”美国文学英语选集”,我们的教程里又增加了文学部分,因为许多的外国访问学者和专家都提出疑问:如果一点英国文学都不学,你们的学生怎么能搞懂英文?英语系的学生只学一些英文词汇的简单内涵而对英语文化一无所知,甚至不知道他们是如何生活如何思考?所有这些问题非常有道理,也是常识。这些都已经荒废许多年了,对于外国人来说是不可想象的。我们怎么被四人帮如此荒唐的理论愚弄和盲目成这样?总而言之,敢于反潮流的英雄毕竟寥寥无几,在历史的湍流中,太多的海藻,太少劈波斩浪的英雄!我只不过是成千上万的海藻中的一分子,这听起来非常悲观和可怜,但我是无洪荒之力,我唯一的勇气是承认自己是个庸人。那些想把自己伪装成英雄的人更是一个庸人!如果历史还会重演的话,教这门课又是正好落在批斗的靶子中,我只但愿在下次到来之前,我已经早早的退休而消失得无影无踪,听天由命吧!


  因为准备这门新课的原因,我不能休暑假了,我必须努力地学习,必须更努力地工作。尽管我很想到南京与您和南京家人一起过几周,孩子们也不能来了,他们在等待入学通知书。


  (童文翻译)


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 郑敏的两封英文信寄到这里:童寯住宅


  Dear Father    Oct. 4


  I am so glad I'mfinally get round to type you a letter. Ever since we were back from Nanking, Ihave been thinking writing you---about what ? I'm not too sure, perhaps aboutour life here, or about the hot, hot summer we "enjoyed" at your"cottage". Any how our two visits to Nanking and our youngerbrother's staying in Beijing during '76 and '77 makes no fool that two householdare ever so much closer that I long to know how things are over there, forinstance, how is the house repairing going on ? How does the garden look now ?Do you still do a lot of reading in your bamboo chair by the coffee table inthe afternoon ? How are the cats? How is that pot or jasmine ? It's fragranceused to provide such pleasant background for so many interesting conversations.Then of curse that pot of camellia. It did look a little on the weak side, butthen it had four or five promising buds, and with little help and fertilizer itwould bloom in due time (To tell you the truth, I have doubts about their fate,because I know none of you are very dexterous in gardening) Talking aboutpot-plant you must remember the two pots of laurel that I brought here fromNanking, they all growing nicely, one is in bloom (though not in full bloom, asa mater of fact, far from that) the other gives encouraging hopes.


  S.P. hasn't done muchteaching in this semester. His electronics course won't begin until next semester,but he is always a busy boy. Now he is been once again assigned to the post ofthe head of the teaching group of Electronics, which has only been recentlyreestablished, after about ten year's decomposition, you can be sure he won'thave time for poring the books for the sake of enriching his knowledge in thefield of electronics. But since it is now a fashion for everyone in theuniversity to carry along in research program while teaching, probably he willat least to keep himself abreast of the latest development of modernelectronics. That will probably enable him to do some research when situationpermits. Our boy is doing all right, he is taking the study seriously, andcarrying painting and music lessons along. His main weakness is carelessness,that's why he didn't get full marks in recent math and English competitions.Our girl starts to lose weight, she has a tight schedule, she will be lucky if.She can get an eight hour sleep every night. I am still teaching third gradestudents, just now they are doing teaching practice in high school. I amsuppose to coach the students to teaching practice, starting from October 10, Ishall be having classes every morning, five days a week.


  We have some verybeautiful autumn days, but it is extremely wet and dreary today. I have to keepthe light on when I type this letter. Though it is only ten in the morning. Outside of the window of our sitting room, where I am working here is no autumnalfoliage of gorgeous colours but dropping withered leaves. The warmth andbrilliant Indian summer has said farewell  for this year. I don't think wewill get around to visit Shisan mountain for those earliest red leaves, but ifone looks carefully enough, he can always see the red cloud wrapping around thetop or middle of some of the hills, even from where we live. In late October,when it was fine and the visibility was good, I used to admire red leaves on myroute ridding bus. They were like red scarves wrapping ever so lightly on thegreyish distant blue hills. Excuse my heavy-handed description, I am no painterat all. But colour always has such fascination for me.


  I'd better wind up myletter before you get too tired. If you have any time or energy to spare todrop us a few line every now and then, to let us know how well you are doing,and what interesting book you are reading.


  Your daughter in law


  Ming


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左起:童村  童寯


  Dear Father


  Your letter arrivedwhile we were waiting for our younger brother to come for lunch. It came assuch a pleasant surprise. We enjoyed reading tremendously. Such moving storycould hardly be told or written today, since people in the west have lost thefaith in true love, and we are always too busy to think about love. This is theway young people in the east and west are brought up today: give love asneering laugh, either for lack of faith or time. But love, either brotherly ormarital, is rain from heaven without which brook will stop from rippling, riverwill go shallow, even ocean will lost their magnitude. What will be left in menwill only be the "commercial needs". The bereavement of one's belovedwhile one is still in his prime of live is sad indeed, but it is much betterthan married life without true love . There is kind of eternity in one's memorywhich none --- time, space or tyrant ---could deprive of.


  Lin Wei was a littlebit worn out when Kuan came to our place for dinner last month. He does lookedolder than he actually is. Kuan was shocked by his appearance (pouched eye,lined forehead, and thing top) partly because they haven't met for quite sometime, and he expected to see someone that looked much younger. Right now he isbusy with the text book compiling and thousand and one other trivialities. Onone hand, he is little too conscientious, on the other hand, he to put hisposition against his will. We all wish he could get out of this deplorablestate. He should devote more of his energy to research work.


  It is a shame that heshould waste his last sparks this way. Your warning comes most opportunely. Butwill thing improved, I sincerely doubt.


  I have been assignedto teach a new course next term: The Anthology of English and AmericanLiterature. Literature is back to our curriculum again because so many foreignvisitors and experts have raised the question: how can your students claim tounderstand English if the have had no English literature at all ? Can anEnglish student understand the connotation of English words without anyknowledge of the culture of that people, how they live and how they think ? Allthese questions are of good and sound common sense. That they should have beenneglected for so many years is something hard to imagine to theforeigners.  How we have been fooled and blinded by the most absurdtheories of the Gang of the Four ! But after all counter-current-heroes arevery rare. So many are sea-weeds, so few are heroes swimming in the torrent ofhistory! I am quite sure that I am one of these thousands of thousands sea-weeds.This sound very unpleasant and pathetic, but I can not help. Probably the onlybravery that is left in me is that I am braves enough to admit my cowardness,the desire to be a sham hero make one been a bigger coward! Teaching thiscourse I am again being within the range of being a target of criticism in casehistory repeats herself. I only hope when that cycle starts again I've longretired from the scene. Let's keep our fingers crossed !


  For the reason ofgetting myself ready for the new teaching task, I can't have any plan forvacation. I must study hard and work even harder, though I'd rather spend a fewweeks with you and other members of our two families in Nanking. The kidscouldn't go either, for they all have to stay for the news of their schooling.


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郑敏先生(2010年7月18日90岁生日

  4


  大娘一直很平等的对待我,她热爱挑战性的思辨。与她的对话,是智慧的升华,是思想的启蒙。任何家常话题只有一秒钟的空间,她立即进入一个意想不到的话题,大娘的思维活跃,逻辑性缜密,步步推理。老太爷去世后,我大学毕业前后那几年,每次暑假我都去清华。


  大娘开始热衷解构主义,她找我讨论物理,如库恩《科学革命的结构》,她特别感兴趣哥白尼是先入为主,假设日心说,然后再用天文观测数据来证明这一命题,甚至坚持认为哥白尼的日心说假设是出于宗教感情。


  量子力学的测不准原理,让她沉思,她认为这是与解构主义的关联。由于沉浸在解构主义,她想折除任何框架体系而解构,这是诗的本质?对于我这个理工出生的脑袋,难以接受。一年以后的暑假,我们再回到这个话题,我用我读到的爱因斯坦: the object of all science, whether thenatural science or the psychology is to coordinate our experience and bringthem into a logical system, 来答复她,大娘说,绝对真理不重要,重要的是不停止的思考。


  大娘是我终生的良师益友,她曾给予我几个忠告:


  (1)勤奋比聪明更重要,这是你任何成功的基础。


  (2)不要生活在童家的阴影之下,寻求你真心爱干的事。


  (3)你长大以后可以给爷爷写本英文传记。


  (4)等你有钱之后,在爷爷的墓边竖立一块黑色大理石,上面刻上贝多芬第九交响曲的一段乐谱,选一段图案漂亮的。


  她老人家99周岁生日之时,小文给大娘汇报:(1)(2)做到; (3)(4)没做到。

image.png

image.png
郑敏先生(
2017·北京文艺网诗人奖领奖现场


  大娘从来没有与我谈过她的诗,但是,在互联网以前,她将每本发行的诗集,都签上“给童文同志” !亲自送我。30年前,我出国后,不久,在书店看到Penguin Press 出版一部世界女诗人集,中国部分只有3人:李清照,冰心,郑敏!


  如果探讨中国诗歌的断代史,新诗和古诗划界是绝对的分水岭,在新诗的断代上,郑敏是一块里程碑,她在青年时的创作和探索已为30年后70年代的诗人提供可资借鉴的重要作品。郑敏又是超越同时代和后代的诗人,因为她是跨越东西方文化精髓的真正学者。


  郑敏的诗


  当你看到和想到


  (一)


  当你看到月亮时

  你在想地球


  当你看到地球时

  你在想太阳


  当你看到太阳时

  你在想别的太阳

  当你看到婴儿时

  你在想老人


  当你看到老人时

  你看不见婴儿


  就像看不见别的太阳

  那距离得太远太远了。


  无限是无法看到的,然而

  你意识到它的存在


  它的光和引力是一张

  看不见的网


  一切都在其中。


  (二)


  走在冬天下午的荷池边

  桔红的冬日

  开始隐入雾霭

  寒光从冰面射出

  看到了那遗忘繁花的荷池

  想到的是夏日的荷叶


  走在冬天下午的林园里

  枯枝用有力的黑色线条

  将蓝空划碎

  看到那遗忘了夏季鸟声的树林

  想到的却是婆娑的林影。


  在看到和想到之间

  人类延续着生的欲望


  本文修改于2019年7月18日郑敏99周岁寿诞日。


  作者简介

image.png


  童文


  1、研究生毕业于东南大学, 1989年留学加拿大获博士学位,之后一直活跃在无线通信产业技术前沿。


  2、2009年之前于北电从事无线通信前沿科研20余年,参与、主持了从第一代(1G)到第四代(4G)多个无线通信系统关键技术的创新科研工作,是3G、4G无线通信技术框架创始人之一。


  历任Nortel无线产品技术创新实验室主任,主持全球6个研发中心200余名专家的无线技术创新工作。在OFDM-MIMO等领域取得过卓越成绩, 2007年被Nortel授予为首批“Fellow”特级专家。


  3、2009年3月加入华为加研所至今一直领导5G等领域的重大技术创新。任2012实验室中央研究院通信实验室主任,无线产品线无线研究部主任,无线网络产品线CTO。因其在无线领域的突出贡献,2011年9月被公司授予为华为首批“Fellow”特级专家。


  4、个人创新能力极强,有超过420篇美国授权发明专利


  5 、2018年,童文荣膺IEEE授予的杰出行业领袖奖。他是IEEE Fellow, 加拿大国家工程院院士。


  (编辑:李思)

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